definition of biotechnology - Industry and Enterprise
Living organisms have been used for thousands of years to produce useful products. Today, a good biotechnology definition
may be the application of knowledge gained from the study of living organisms, aims to produce useful products on a wide scale and the development of practices that will improve the standard of living of people. Biotechnology is based mainly on farming techniques and development of microorganisms and recombinant DNA. Advances in biotechnology offer many new possibilities in research but also raises many ethical issues causing the attention of the media and creating an intense public debate.
Ignorance and fear often go together and from what it seems, the same applies to the case of biotechnology. Looking back in manuals will discover a multitude of definitions of biotechnology. But perhaps the most comprehensive to be given by the French Interior Minister, that "Biotechnology is any effort to biomass" (all living organisms). Thus, the production of wine or cheese, processes in which waste the action of microorganisms are early manifestations of classical biotechnology.
Modern biotechnology is a natural child of biology and grew up with her. Resulted from the gradual accumulation of knowledge especially in the areas of genetics and molecular biology and encompassing all technological applications that were based on such knowledge. From the early achievements of biotechnology has been the production of human insulin by microorganisms after transfer of the corresponding human gene into them in 1973. Insulin has replaced the porcine insulin which was used as the time and contributed to ensuring sufficiency of the drug and with cheaper price. Since biotechnology applications proliferate continuously and in more and more fields. From the medical and pharmaceutical industries, agriculture and food industry biotechnology products are ubiquitous.
What exactly we are meaning when we talk about biotechnology products?
These are products that have been generated from our controlled intervention in the genetic material of microorganisms, plants or animals. Manipulation of genetic material is the addition or deletion of genes, such as the transfer of human genes in microorganisms or animals for the production of human proteins or introducing these genes into plants in order to obtain resistance to diseases. Recent developments in biotechnology including the intervention in human genetic material (gene therapy) to treat genetic diseases.
Areas of Biotechnology
As research progresses in biotechnology, with the resulting enlargement of practical applications in everyday life of the citizen and in general society. While in principle, the application range was especially in medicine, agriculture later, then knowledge obtained began to diffuse industry, contributing to better ways of producing products, environmentally friendly, saving energy and creating better quality products for the consumer.
By grouping these applications Biotechnology is divided into three categories. In brief:
The Red Biotechnology has a wide scope in Medicine. An important application is in diagnostics, which allows for a much faster and more accurate detection of diseases. A well-known diagnostic method based on Biotechnology and widely used by the female population is the pregnancy test. Another sector which the biotechnology act in medicine is the treatment that is perhaps the most important. Also, the area of transplantation is another branch of medicine that biotechnology has to show significant results. Also, important are the efforts of Biotechnology to create human tissue cells will mean revolution in transplantation.
The Green Biotechnology has shown many applications in agriculture, affecting large parts of society. The main application is to plant crops. Many new varieties have been produced with the assistance of Biotechnology which produce longer and are more resistant to insect attack. Also creates plants which the final products have the best quality or characteristics and in some cases contain specialized components such as vitamins that their consumption contributes to better health.
The White biotechnology is about the industry and the environment. In industry applies the so-called industrial sustainability, which is a continuous innovation. Regarding the environment, white biotechnology has created a variety of methods for the effective management of hazardous waste but also for dealing with pollution mainly soil and water.
For the acceptance of modern biotechnology necessitates transparent procedures and careful steps for greater safety and conquer even bigger goals in the medical field and in the effective use of resources.
In short this was the definition of biotechnology...
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